Selasa, 29 Maret 2016



A preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence.

A preposition is used to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object.

Here are a few common prepositions and examples.


1Used to point out specific time:
  • I will meet you at 12 p.m.
  • The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m.

2. Used to indicate a place:
  • There is a party at the club house.
  • There were hundreds of people at the park.
  • We saw a baseball game at the stadium.

3. Used to indicate an email address:
  • Please email me at

4. Used to indicate an activity:
  • He laughed at my acting.
  • I am good at drawing a portrait.


1. Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year:
  • She always reads newspapers in the morning.
  • In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks.
  • The new semester will start in March.

2. Used to indicate a location or place:
  • She looked me directly in the eyes.
  • I am currently staying in a hotel.

3. Used to indicate a shape, color, or size:
  • This painting is mostly in blue.
  • The students stood in a circle.
  • This jacket comes in four different sizes.

4. Used to express while doing something:
  • In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times.
  • A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product.

5. Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling:
  • I believe in the next life.
  • We are not interested in gambling.


1. Used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with:
  • The secret of this game is that you can’t ever win.
  • The highlight of the show is at the end.
  • The first page of the book describes the author’s profile.

2. Used to indicate reference:
  • This is a picture of my family.
  • I got a discount of 10 percent on the purchase.

3. Used to indicate an amount or number:
  • I drank three cups of milk.
  • A large number of people gathered to protest.


1. Used to indicate the place, person, or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something:
  • I am heading to the entrance of the building.
  • All of us went to the movie theater.
  • Please send it back to me.

2. Used to indicate a limit or an ending point:
  • The snow was piled up to the roof.
  • The stock prices rose up to 100 dollars.

3. Used to indicate relationship:
  • This letter is very important to your admission.
  • My answer to your question is in this envelop.

4. Used to indicate a time or a period:
  • I work nine to six, Monday to Friday.


1. Used to indicate the use of something:
  • This place is for exhibitions and shows.
  • I baked a cake for your birthday.
  • She has been studying hard for the final exam.

2. Used to mean because of:
  • We feel deeply sorry for your loss.
  • For this reason, I’ve decided to quit this job.

3. Used to indicate time or duration:
  • He’s been famous for many decades.
  • I attended the university for one year only.


  1. Common Verb and Preposition Combinations

Verbs and prepositions are also used in common phrases. The verb generally goes in front of the preposition.

Account for - to be the explanation or cause of something.

  • The poor weather may have accounted for the small crowd.

Adapt to - to change something in order to make it suitable for a new use or situation.

  • When you travel you have to adapt to the habits and customs of the country you visit.

Adhere to - to behave according to a particular law, rule, set of instructions.

  • She adheres to teaching methods she learned over 30 years ago.

Agree on - to have the same opinion about something.

  • They couldn’t agree on the subject of foreign policy.

Agree with - to have the same opinion as somebody.

  • I don’t agree with a word you say.

Apologize for - to say that you are sorry for doing something wrong or causing a problem.

  • I have to apologize for the way this room looks. I haven’t gotten around to cleaning it.

Approve of - to think that somebody/something is good, acceptable or suitable.

  • She doesn’t approve of alcohol in any form.

Argue with - to disagree with a statement.

  • He's a really successful man, you can't argue with that.

Ask about - to say or write something in the form of a question, in order to get information.

  • He asked about her family.

Ask for - to say that you want to speak to somebody or be directed to a place.

  • I asked for a quite room on the second floor of the hotel.

Correspond with - to be the same as or match something.

  • This signature does not correspond with the one on his ID card.

Decide on - to choose something from a number of.

  • I can't decide on who to invite.

Depend on - to rely on somebody/something and be able to trust them.

  • You can depend on him to do a good job.

Listen in - to listen to a conversation that you are not supposed to hear.

  • You shouldn't listen in on other people's conversations.

Punish for - to make somebody suffer because they have broken the law or done something wrong.

  • He was punished for refusing to answer their questions.

Pay for - to give somebody money for work, goods, services, etc.

  • I'll pay for the tickets.

Pay in - to put money into a bank account.

  • I paid in a cheque this morning.

Recover from - in good health and well again after being ill/sick, hurt, etc.

  • She is now fully recovered from her injuries.

Rely on - to need or depend on somebody/something.

  • Many of the town's residents relied on neighbours for help during the flood.

       2. Common Adjective and Preposition Combinations

Adjectives and prepositions are commonly used in phrases. The adjective usually goes before the preposition.

Here are a few of the common combinations of adjectives and prepositions in English:

Angry at - having strong feelings about something that you dislike very much or about an unfair situation.

  • My mother is angry at me because I forgot her birthday.

Good at - able to do something well.

  • Nick has always been good at finding cheap flights.

Capable of - having the ability or qualities necessary for doing something.

  • He is capable of winning a gold medal.

Proud of - feeling pleased and satisfied about something that you own or have done, or are connected with.

  • You practiced a lot and gave a great performance – I’m proud of you!

Afraid of - worried about what might happen.

  • I started to feel afraid of going out alone at night.

Fond of - finding something pleasant or enjoyable, especially something you have liked or enjoyed for a long time.

  • The kids are very fond of the puppy.

Full of - having or containing a large number or amount of something.

  • The mall is always full of teenagers on the weekend.

Satisfied with - pleased because you have achieved something or because something that you wanted to happen has happened.

  • I wasn’t satisfied with the customer service at the bank.

Busy with - having a lot to do.

  • We’ve been working overtime lately because we’ve been busy with a new project.

Fed up with - bored or unhappy, especially with a situation that has continued for too long.

  • People are fed up with all these traffic jams.

Associated with - the two things are connected because they happen together or one thing causes the other.

  • There are many health risks associated with smoking.

Disappointed in - upset because something you hoped for has not happened or been as good, successful, etc. as you expected.

  • The teacher was disappointed in the behavior of the class.

Skilled in - having enough ability, experience and knowledge to be able to do something well.

  • She was highly skilled in physics and chemistry.

Interested in - giving your attention to something because you enjoy finding out about it or doing it.

  • Giovanni is interested in classic English literature.

Involved in - to make somebody experience something.

  • Marlene is very involved in volunteer work.

Known for - reputation; to think that somebody/something is a particular type of person or thing or has particular characteristics.

  • Brazil is known for its wonderful music and friendly people.

Good for - having a useful or helpful effect on somebody/something.

  • Chocolate and red wine are actually good for your heart!

Similar to - like somebody/something but not exactly the same.

  • The movie is very similar to the book.

Rude to - having or showing a lack of respect for other people and their feelings.

  • The little boy was punished after being rude to his grandfather.

Worried about - thinking about unpleasant things that have happened or that might happen and therefore feeling unhappy and afraid.

  • Students often get worried about writing exams.

Concerned about - worried and feeling concern about something.

  • Nancy was concerned about being late.

Anxious about - feeling worried or nervous.

  • Nurma is anxious about making the presentation.


Selasa, 15 Maret 2016



There are a lot of words in English that look or sound alike but have very different meanings. Words that sound alike but are different in spelling, meaning or origin is called homophone. Writers often confuse and misuse these words. It’s helpful to use a dictionary to look up the meaning of the word in question. Here is the example of commonly misused words with definition.

Aloud , Allowed

Aloud(adv) - is an adverb that means out loud or audibly.
She sang the song aloud to her class.

Allowed(v) - is a verb that means permitted.
The boy was not allowed to play video games until he finished his homework.

Allusion, Illusion

Allusion(n) - an indirect reference
His allusion to the previous tenant was out of place.

Illusion(n) - applies to something appearing to be true or real, but actually not existing or being quite different from what it seems.
Danby’s paintings create a striking illusion of reality.

Appraise, Apprise

Appraise(v) - means set a value on.
I have had my house appraised by an evaluator.

Apprise(v) - means make aware of.
All parties were fully apprised of the state of the negotiations.

Ascent, Assent

Ascent(n) - climb
The ascent to the top mountain is not easy.

Assent(n) - agreement
Dad gave his assent to the marriage.

Accept, Except

Accept (v) - is a verb meaning to receive.
She will not accept the job offer.

Except (prep) - is usually a preposition meaning excluding.
No one is allowed to enter my room, except you.

Affect, Effect

Affect (v) - is usually a verb meaning to influence.
Certain foods may affect our mood.

Effect(n) - is usually a noun meaning result.
She wanted to know the effect of television on children.

Cite , Site

Cite(v) - is a verb that means to quote as an authority
I cited several eminent scholars in my study of water resources.

Site(n) - is a noun meaning location
They chose a new site for the factory just outside town.

Elicit, Illicit

Elicit(v) - is a verb that means to draw out.
His question elicited a sharp reply.

Illicit(adj) - meaning unlawful.
Illicit trade in narcotics.

Hear, Here

Hear(v) - to perceive by the ear
Do you want to hear a joke?

Here(adv) - in this place, in this spot or locality (opposed to there)
Take off your shoes here.

Loose, Lose

Loose(adj) - is an opposite of tight.
This suit is loose on me.

Lose(v) - is a verb meaning to misplace, to be defeated.
I lose my lunchbox.

Mail, Male

Mail(n) - correspondence.
Many said that a male and female brain are different in structures and chemicals.

Male(n) - masculine.
I’ve just received your mail.

Principal, Principle

Principal(n) - is a noun meaning the head of a school or an organization or a sum of money.
A school principal should have leadership skills.

Principle(n) - is a noun meaning a basic truth or law.
I’m not going to change my principles.

Their, There, They’re

Their - is a possessive pronoun.
Their application is being validated.

There(adv) - in that place.
He is eating lunch there.

They're - contraction of they are.
They’re my favorite chemical scientists.

To, Too, Two

To(prep) - is a preposition meaning in the direction of, toward
It is the bad way to ask for help.

Too(adv) - is an adverb meaning also, excessively
He likes swimming too.

Two - is a number
Only two cheese cakes left.


There are words that cause problems when the speaker is not able to distinguish between them. They are similiar in meaning or pronounciation but can not be used interchangeably.
Here is the example of confusingly related words with definition.

Among, Between

Among(prep) - is used when referring to three or more.
I was standing among a group of schoolchildren.

Between(prep) - is used when referring to two.
The post office is between the bank and the shop.

Borrow, Lend

Borrow(v) – to obtain or receive (something) on loan with the promise or understanding of returning it or its equivalent.
He borrowed my pen yesterday.

Lend(v) – to give or allow the use temporarily on the condition that the same or its equivalent will be returned.
She lends me her book today.

Explicit, Implicit

Explicit (adj) – clear, easy to understand, evident, unambiguous
My teacher give an explicit intruction.

Implicit (adj) – implied, ambiguous
That was implicit in what she said.

Fewer and Less

Fewer - is used with nouns that can be counted
I have fewer pairs of shoes than I used to have.

Less - is used with nouns that cannot be counted.
There is less water in the lake than last summer.

Good, Well

Good(adj) - is an adjective and is used to modify nouns and linking verbs
I have a good essay.

Well(adv) - is an adverb and is used to modify action verbs.
She sings well.

Many, Much

Many - is used when referring to a large but definite number. Many refers to things that can be counted.
I have too many shoes.

Much - is used when referring to something great in quantity, amount, extent or degree. Much refers to things that can not be counted.
You have too much time.

Remind, Remember

Remind(v) – to cause a person to remember, cause (a person) to think of (someone or something).
Remind me to return this book to the library.

Remember(v) – to recall to the mind with effort; think of again.
I remember to lock the door.